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PCOS, short for polycystic ovarian syndrome, is a common cause of anovulation and female infertility It is also sometimes referred to as PCO (polycystic ovaries) or PCOD (polycystic ovarian disease).
Women with polycystic ovaries and fertility problems :
Do not release an egg (ovulate) regularly.
Have ovaries that contain many small cystic structures, about 2-9 mm in diameter.

In a normal menstrual cycle with ovulation, a mature follicle – which is also a cystic structure – develops. The size of a mature follicle that is ready to ovulate is about 18 to 28mm in diameter.

  • About 14 days after ovulation the woman would be expected to get a period if she is not pregnant.

  • The basic difference between polycystic and normal ovaries is that although the polycystic ovaries contain many small antral follicles with eggs in them, the follicles do not develop and mature properly – so there is no ovulation.

  • Since women with polycystic ovaries do not ovulate regularly, they do not get regular menstrual periods.

Symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome.
A common scenario in women with polycystic ovaries is :

It is estimated that polycystic ovarian syndrome affects about 8-10% of women of reproductive age. It is very common.

The infertility rate with polycystic ovaries is very high. These women usually will have difficulty getting pregnant – and usually require treatment to improve chances for pregnancy.

The good news is that the chance of getting pregnant with polycystic ovarian syndrome using fertility treatments is very good. The great majority of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome will be able to have a baby with fertility treatment.
For young women under age 35 with polycystic ovaries, the real question is more about which treatment will be effective – and not so much whether any treatment can ever work.
Treatments for polycystic ovaries and infertility
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome usually need induction of ovulation to get pregnant.

In a polycystic ovary, the numerous small cystic structures, also called antral follicles, give the ovaries a characteristic “polycystic” (many cysts) appearance on ultrasound.